[14] Ibid., p. 34.

[15] The consortium was the American International Corporation, in which J P Morgan interests predominated. American International had adopted a pro-Bolshevik policy as early as 1918, when the Corporation’s executive secretary William Franklin Sands expressed the view, at the request for an assessment of the Russian situation by Secretary of Sates Robert Lansing, that the USA has already been too long in recognising ‘Trotzky.’ Sands made comparisons between the American and Bolshevik Revolutions. (US State Dept. Decimal File, 861.00/961, William Sands, 16 January 1918, p. 9). His attitude is similar to that of William Boyce Thompson, and other Wall Street luminaries, as will be considered below.

[16] Richard J Barnett, Ronald E Muller, Global Reach: The Power of the Multinational Corporations (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1974), p. 93.

[17] Indeed, Barnet at least, as a prominent academic with the long running Left-wing think tank, the Institute for Policy Studies, would probably have preferred not to contemplate a more far-reaching nexus between Big Business and some forms of socialism. It is however interesting to note that the IPR was itself established with financial patronage from James P Warburg of the famous banking dynasty, and continues to receive financial patronage from the Ford Foundation, and has had among its trustees well connected businessmen such as Michael Gellert.

[18] New York Times, 24 March, 1917, pp. 1-2.

[19] “Loans easier for Russia”, The New York Times, 20 March 1917. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9B04EFDD143AE433A25753C2A9659C946696D6CF (accessed 12 January 2010).

[20] ‘Is A People’s Revolution,’ The New York Times, 16 March 1917.

[21] ‘Bankers here pleased with news of revolution,’ ibid.

[22] ‘Stocks strong – Wall Street interpretation of Russian News,’ ibid.

[23] Samuel Gompers, “Soviet Bribe fund Here Says Gompers, Has Proof That Offers Have Been Made, He Declares, Opposing Recognition. Propaganda Drive. Charges Strong Group of Bankers With Readiness to Accept Lenin’s Betrayal of Russia”, The New York Times, 1 May 1922. Online at Times’ archives: http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9E00E3D81739EF3ABC4953DFB3668389639EDE

[24] Henry Wickham Steed, Through Thirty Years 1892-1922 A personal Narrative, ‘The Peace Conference, The Bullitt Mission,’ Vol II.  (New York: Doubleday Page and Co., 1924), p. 301.

[25] Antony Sutton, Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution (New Rochelle: Arlington House Publishers, 1974), p. 71.

[26] Ibid., p. 75.

[27] Ibid., p. 73.

[28] ‘Bolsheviki Will Not Make Separate Peace: Only Those Who Made Up Privileged Classes Under Czar Would Do So, Says Col. W B Thompson, Just Back From Red Cross Mission,’ The New York Times, 27 January 1918.

[29] Ibid.

[30] Predecessor of the Council on Foreign Relations.

[31] Grosse’s reference to ‘a few’ corporations getting into Soviet Russia at this early stage is an understatement, or at least if ‘a few’ did get in they were of significant magnitude.  Cf. Charles Levinson, Vodka-Cola (Essex: The Anchor Press Ltd., 1980). Levinson comments in his exhaustive study on East-West relations: ‘…Business contracts continued throughout the period of apparent ideological antagonism. American capitalists travelled to Russia to trade in the twenties and thirties on a steady individual basis.’ Levinson, ibid.,  p. 11. Cf. Antony Sutton, op.cit.

[32] Peter Grosse, op.cit., ‘Basic Assumptions.’

[33] Armand Hammer with Neil Lyndon, Hammer: Witness to History (Kent: Hodder and Stoughton, 1988), p. 160.

[34] Ibid., p. 201. It is doubtful whether Hammer was genuinely ‘startled’ by Trotsky’s attitude then either. Armand’s father Julius had played generous host to the Trotsky family during their brief sojourn in New York. See: Richard B Spence, ‘Hidden Agendas: Spies, Lies and Intrigue Surrounding Trotsky’s American Visit, January-April 1917’, Revolutionary Russia, Volume 21, Issue 1 June 2008, pp. 33 – 55.

[35] Ibid., p. 221.

[36] K R Bolton, ‘Russian and China: An Approaching Conflict?,’ Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies, Washington, Vol. 34, No. 2, Summer 2009, pp. 182-185.

[37] Cf. J Chang and J Halliday, Mao: The Unknown Story (London: Jonathon Cape, 2005), pp. 534- 547.

[38] K R Bolton, op.cit., p. 156.

[39] J Chang, op.cit.,  pp. 304-311.

[40] Ibid., p. 601.

[41] Peter Grosse, op.cit.

[42] ‘Far from being strategic rivals, the two empires have the air of economic partners. ‘ Niall Ferguson, Colossus: The Rise and Fall of the American Empire (London: Allen Lane, 2004), p. 261.

[43] It is interesting to note that Robert Blum, head of the CFR China team, was also with the Asia Society, another Rockefeller think tank that had been founded in 1956 by John D Rockefeller III. The by-line of the Society is: ‘Preparing Asians and Americans for a shared future.’ http://www.asiasociety.org/about/mission.html (accessed 2 March 2010).

Asia Society Trustees currently include: Charles P. Rockefeller and John D. Rockefeller IV. The chairman of the Asia Society’s Executive Committee is Richard C Holbrooke, former US Ambassador to the UN, who is a member of the CFR, and the Trilateral Commission, founded by David Rockefeller.

[44] Peter Grosse, op.cit.,  ‘X’ Leads the Way.’