[9] Ferdinand E. Marcos. “Hallmark of National Sovereignty” speech at the 84th Anniversary of the founding of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 23 June 1983.

[10] Ho Chi Minh was a small and frail man, but a fearless and tough crusader of freedom. He was born of peasant parents on May 19, 1890, in the village of Kim Lien, Province of Nghe An – a Vietnamese province famous for scholars and revolutionaries. His name at birth was Nguyen Thai Thanh (Nguyen who will be Victorious). Later, he assumed other names, such as Nguyen Ai Quoc (Nguyen the Patriot) in 1920, Ly Thuy in 1925, Tong Van Son in 1931, and P.C. Lin in 1936.As a liberator of Vietnam from French rule and as President of the Communist North Vietnam, he is known as Ho Chi Minh (Ho the Very Enlightened).

[11] Vera Simone, The Asian Pacific: Political and Economic Development in a Global Context (USA: Longman Publishers, 1995). 98.

[12] Edward L. Farmer, et al., Comparative History of Civilizations in Asia (Volume II: 1350 to Present) (United States of America: Westview Press, Inc., 1986), 768.

[13] John Fairbank, et al., East Asia: Tradition and Transformation (Boston: Houghton Miffline Company, 1978), 883.

[14] David M. Finkelstein. “Vietnam: A Revolution in Crisis.” Asian Survey, Vol.27, No, 9 (September 1987) p. 975

[15] Ferdinand E. Marcos. “Hallmark of National Sovereignty” Speech delivered at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 23 June 1983

[16] Ricardo T. Jose, “One Hundred Years of Philippine-United States Relations: An Outline History” in In Aileen San Pablo-Baviera and Lydia N. Yu-Jose, Philippine External Relations: A Centennial Vista (Pasay City: Foreign Service Institute, 1998), 423.

[17] Aileen San Pablo-Baviera. “Rethinking Philippine Foreign Policy” Kasarinlan, Volume 10, Number 2, (4th Quarter, 1994), 83.

[18] David Chandler, A History of Cambodia (fourth edition) (Colorado: Westview Press, 2008), 18.

[19]  King Sihanouk is the great-grandson of Norodom I, who accepted French protectorate in 1863. Norodom I ruled Cambodia from 1860 to 1904 and was succeeded by Sisowath (1904-1927), his son Monivong (1927-1941), the first Asian general in the French army, and Norodom Sihanouk (1941-1955), who was proclaimed King of Cambodia by the French authorities on April 25, 1941. Sihanouk was only 19 years old when he was crowned. He abdicated the throne in 1955 in favor of his father Norodom Sumararit, who died in 1960.

[20] Marie A. Martin, Cambodia: A Shattered Society (London, England: University of California Press, Ltd., 1994), 93.

[21] Vera Simone, The Asian Pacific: Political and Economic Development in a Global Context (USA: Longman Publishers, 1995), 148.

[22] Karl D. Jackson, Cambodia 1975-1978: Rendezvous with Death (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1989), 3.

[23] Ibid.

[24] David P. Chandler, “The Tragedy of Cambodian History.” Pacific Affairs, Volume 52, Number 3 (Autumn, 1979), 413.

[25] Grant Evans, A Short History of Laos: The Land in Between (Australia: Allen and Unwin, 2002), 9.

[26] Gregorio F. Zaide, History of Asian Nations: An Oriental History in World Setting (Manila: National Bookstore, 1969), 127.

[27] Ibid.

[28] The organization can trace its roots to the Second World War just as the Khmer Issarak in Cambodia and the Viet Mihn and Vietnam People’s Army did. Its original name has been forgotten, but in 1950 it was renamed the Pathet Lao (Land of Laos), when it was adopted by Lao forces under Prince Souphanouvong, who joined the Viet Minh revolt against the colonial French authorities in Indochina during the First Indochina War. As a Communist, nationalist group in Laos, it took control of the country in 1975.

[29] Grant Evans. The Politics of Ritual and Remembrance: Laos since 1975 (Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press, 1998), 15.

[30] Martha Glauber Shapp. Lands and People: Asia, Australia, New Zealand and Oceania. (New York: Grolier, Inc., 1976) p. 120

[31] Gregorio F. Zaide. History of Asian Nations: An Oriental History in World Setting (Manila, Philippines: National Bookstore, 1969) p. 256

[32] James A. Bill and Carl Leiden, Politics in the Middle East (2nd edition) (Boston: Little, Brown, 1984), 319-332; and James D. Forman, Socialism: Its Theoretical Roots and Present Day Development (New York: Dell, 1972), 58-61.

[33] See Robert W. Stookey, South Yemen: A Marxist Republic in Arabia (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1982), 21.

[34] Sonia M. Zaide, History of Asian Nations (fourth edition) (Manila: All-Nations Publishing Co., Inc., 1994), 169.

[35] In spite of Soviet aid to Egypt, Iraq, Libya and Syria, Communists in the Arab World have frequently been repressed, despite being influential in Iraq and Syria in late 1958, and again in Iraq in the 1970s. Why has Marxist-Leninist ideology done so poorly in the Middle East? Perhaps it is because, being atheistic, it has a hard time gaining ground in lands where Islam is very strong.

[36] Donald F. Busky, Communism in History and Theory: Asia, Africa, and the Americas (United States of America: Praeger Publishers, 2002), 73.

[37] James Hantula, et al., Global Insights: People and Culture (Columbus, Ohio: Merrell Publishing Company, 1987), 8.

[38] See www.history.com/this-day-in-history/eisenhower-gives-famous-domino-theory-speech.

[39] John Iliffe, Africans: The History of a Continent (Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1995), 241.

[40] F.R. Metrowich, Africa and Communism: A Study of Successes, Setbacks and Stooge States (Johannesburg: Yooptrekkenpers, 1967), 4.

[41] Walter Kolarz, “The Impact of Communism on West Africa,” International Affairs, Volume 38, Number 2, (April 1962), 156.

[42] F.R. Metrowich, Africa and Communism: A Study of Successes, Setbacks and Stooge States (Johannesburg: Yooptrekkenpers, 1967), 90.

[43] Kevin Shillington, Encyclopedia of African History (New York: Fitzyroy Dearborn Taylor and Francis Group, 2005), 301.

[44] Op. cit.

[45] Kevin Shillington, Encyclopedia of African History (New York: Fitzyroy Dearborn Taylor and Francis Group, 2005), 243.

[46] Philippe David, The Benin (Paris, France: Karthala Publishing, 1998), 60.

[47] See the work of Joao M. Cabrita, Mozambique: The Tortuous Road to Democracy (New York: Palgrave, 2000), 5.

[48] Philip Briggs, Mozambique (USA: The Globe Pequot Press, Inc., 2011), 15.

[49] W. James Martin, Historical Dictionary of Angola (United Kingdom: Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2011), 11.

[50] F.R. Metrowich, Africa and Communism: A Study of Successes, Setbacks and Stooge States (Johannesburg: Yooptrekkenpers, 1967), 47.

[51] Ibid.

[52] Ferdinand E. Marcos. “New Directions in Philippine Foreign Policy,” Speech delivered at the UP Law Alumni Dinner at the Philippine Plaza Hotel, September 29, 1978

[53] Manuel Collantes, The New Philippine Foreign Policy (Manila: Office of Public Affairs, Department of Foreign Affairs, 1970), 3.

[54] Ibid. p. 4

[55] John K. Fairbank, China: Tradition and Transformation (Australia: Allen and Unwin Australia Pty Ltd., 1990), 482.

[56] Mao Zedong, The Chinese Revolution and the Chinese Communist Party (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1954), 17.

[57] Liang Liangxing, China’s Foreign Relations: A Chronology of Events (Beijing: Foreign Language Press, 1989), 3.

[58] White Paper on “The Taiwan Question and Reunification of China.” (Beijing: Taiwan Affairs Office & Information Office State Council, 1993) 8.

[59] Ferdinand E. Marcos, “New Filipinism: The Turning Point,” State of the Nation Message to the Congress of the Philippines, 27 January, 1969.

[60] See English.gov.cn/official/2005-2005-07/27/content_17613.htm, taken from www.onechinapolicy.com.

[61] The Gulf of Aquaba or Gulf of Eilat is a large gulf located on the northern tip of the Red Sea, east of the Sinai Peninsula and west of the Arabian mainland. Its coastline is divided between four countries: Egypt, Israel, Jordan and Saudi Arabia.

[62] Gregorio F. Zaide, History of Asian Nations: An Oriental History in World Setting (Manila, Philippines: National Bookstore, 1969), 241.

[63] Ian J. Bickerton, The Arab-Israeli Conflict: A History (London: Reaktim Books, Ltd., 2009), 139.

[64] Ibid.

[65] Ibid.

[66] Farhang Rajaee, The Iran-Iraq War: The Politics of Aggression (United States of America: The University Press of Florida, 1993), 25.

[67] R.N. Schofield, The Evolution of the Shatt al-Arab Boundary Dispute (London: Menas Publisher, 1986), 64.

[68] Efraim Karsh. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. (New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., 2009) p. 12

[69] Benjamin B. Domingo, Marcos Foreign Policy (Manila: Marcos Presidential Center, Inc., 2007), 102-103.

[70] Richard John Kessler Jr., Developmental Diplomacy: The Making of Philippine Foreign Policy under Ferdinand E. Marcos (United States of America: The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, 1985), 177.

[71] Op. cit. p. 185

[72] Ibid. p. 187