What are the expected major advantages of the new energy of cold fusion? One, obtaining cheaper and small nuclear energy reactors; and, two, avoiding the hazardous radioactive waste. Achieving the first one without solving the second will be a problem. Presently, management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power plants is quite expensive, but it is part of the maintenance and the problem is considered solved. At least, it appears to be solved because the Fukushima nuclear catastrophe is a result of bad waste management. The new energy reactors based on cold fusion may not be available for wider distribution if they produce any radioactive waste.

The tests of E-cat HT reactors of Andrea Rossi provided in Uppsala University, Sweden, (2012-2013),    and the live test of Defkalion (DGT) Hyperion reactor broadcast on July 22-23, 2013, are reliable demonstrations that cold fusion energy is real. The fuel elements in both types of reactors are nickel and hydrogen, while the technical methods and reaction environments are different. The E-cat HT (high temperature) rector is distinguished from the previous E-cat device that a high temperature metal hydride is used instead of a hydrogen gas. The hydrogen from the metal hydride is released when heated, so it can be controlled by temperature. In the first tests in Uppsala University (December, 2012), the E-cat HT delivered an average power of 2034 watts during a 96 hour test at an input power of 360 watts, so the coefficient of performance was COP = 5.6. In the second test (March, 2013) the temperature regulated E-cat HT2 operated at lower temperature with COP = 2.6 for 116 hours.

According to the published results, the energy comes from the fuel that is, incredibly, less than one gram, and the estimated energy density is well beyond all known conventional chemical sources. Despite of this success, Rossi has a problem with the certification of the small heating reactor, probably because he does not allow any radiation measurement of the fuel substance before and after the test. While the DGT method is more openly discussed, the E-cat method of Andrea Rossi includes a trade secret about the catalyst that he is not willing to disclose. The question is: Could a trade secret be an obstacle for the further scientific advancement in cold fusion? One cannot deny the contribution of Andrea Rossi, but his success would not be possible without the inherited knowledge from the prior 30 years of research in that field. In this sense, the decision of the European patent office to grant a patent  about cold fusion, (EP 2,368, 252 B1) to the retired professor Francesco Piantelli is reasonable. Piantelli was the founder of Cold Fusion research in Italy just after the publication of Pons-Fleischmann experiment in 1989. His contribution is significant because he shifted the focus of the research from palladium to nickel, which subsequently led to the big success in cold fusion today.

The analysis published in General Science Journal with more details in the book Structural Physics of Nuclear Fusion with BSM-SG Atomic Models leads to the conclusion that the nuclear fusion reaction Ni + H -> Cu is feasible. It falls under the category of cold fusion, and it is the major source of the released heat. At the same time, this reaction cannot provide radioactive waste if the right nickel isotopes are used. That is the reason for my recommendation to use Ni(62) and Ni(64) isotopes. This is in full agreement with some experimental results published by Focardi and Rossi and the radiation measurements of operated E-cat reactors. My additional suggestions are to try also the reactions Cr(54) + H -> Mn(55) + 7.56 MeV and Cr(52) + H -> Mn(53), where the second one is a traceable reaction that will serve as a proof if the reaction is feasible.

The commercialization of cold fusion energy will require an extensive study on the safety of the newly discovered nuclear process. In the case of E-cat, this means an open test checking for traces of radioactive isotopes before and after the test. Even without such a test, the scientific analysis accompanied with properly designed experiments may lead to discovering the type of the catalyst that will jeopardize the trade secret embedded in E-cat. From the analysis of some LENR experiments, the Rossi method in E-cat and the DGT method in Hyperion, we concluded that the secret catalyst of Rossi could be an isotope (or set of isotopes) emitting beta particles. Why beta particles? Many beta emitting isotopes are not sources of hazardous radioactive waste because they do not decay into elements emitting hard radiation and their decay time is known. They must only trigger the suggested nuclear reactions by specific physical mechanism described in the above mentioned book. Our analysis also reveals and explains another important issue. Beta particles become self-generated by the nuclear process after the E-cat works in a nominal operational mode for some time. It is known that the E-cat reactor produces a small quantity of zinc(64). This isotope is unstable and decays into Cu(63) with emission of a beta particle. That helps the nuclear process to become self-sustainable. The beta radiation from the working reactor can be easily shielded in order not to appear outside of the reactor enclosure.

Where could these beta emitters be placed? In the E-cat HT reactors that Rossi provided for the tests at Uppsala University, the fuel substance (nickel powder, HT metal hydride and catalyst) was placed in a steel cylinder with a diameter of 3.3 cm, a wall thickness of 3 mm and a length of 33 cm. It was inside of an external cylinder with a diameter of 10 cm and length of 33 cm, with an outer shell of silicon nitride. In such arrangement, the beta particles from the catalyst and the process could not be measured outside of the E-cat HT device. After the tests, the cylinders with the fuel were cut and the fuel substance was taken by Rossi. He never allowed radiation spectral measurement of this substance. He also claimed that the fuel maintenance of the small distributed devices will be done only by his company and can be put in a small replaceable cartridge.

In the Hyperion reactor of Defkalion, the triggering of the nuclear reactions is produced by the high voltage discharge. In this case, there is no need for beta emitters, and the output energy can be controlled by adjusting the voltage. Another problem not solved yet is the minimization of the nuclear transmutation reactions providing a variety of nuclear isotopes, as some of them may have a longer radioactive decay. The Defkalion project is more openly discussed than the e-cat reactor of Andrea Rossi and the problem of unwanted radioactive waste might be solved.

In conclusion: Our expectations for cheaper and safer nuclear energy are realistic. However, more funded research is needed until the new energy source is matured for the market.