Notes

[1] Central Asia is defined here as the five post-Soviet republics (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan). Though other definitions are used, embracing not only these countries but also Mongolia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran, they are not widely accepted and would rather refer to the region of Greater Central Asia.

[2] Zbigniew Brzezinski, The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and Its Geostrategic Imperatives, (New York: Basic Books October 1997), ISBN 0-465-02726-1

[3] http://www.cacianalyst.org/?q=node/4756

[4] The heartland concept refers to an area at the heart of the Eurasian continent easily defendable, as it may not be invaded from the sea, and providing access to all choke points, that is crucial geographical spots, like the Caucasus or the Persian Gulf. It may be understood both in a wider and narrower sense. Thus, Germany may be regarded as the heartland of Europe or Central Asia construed as the heartland of Eurasia. For the difference between Halford Mackinder’s and Zbigniew Brzezinski’s understanding of the extent of the heartland please see further in the article.

[5] http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/jfkberliner.html

[6] http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/reagan-tear-down.htm

[7] http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/ronaldreaganevilempire.htm

[8] Henry Kissinger, Diplomacy, Simon & Schuster April 1995], ISBN 0671510991

[9] http://www.ena.lu/address_given_winston_churchill_congress_europe_hague_1948-020002618.html

[10] http://europa.eu/abc/symbols/9-may/decl_en.htm

[11] http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8387648.stm

[12] Zbigniew Brzezinski, The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and Its Geostrategic Imperatives, (New York: Basic Books October 1997), ISBN 0-465-02726-1

[13] http://www.eurasiangroup.org/files/documents/conventions_eng/The%20Shanghai%20Convention.pdf

[14] http://www.ca-c.org/online/2009/journal_eng/cac-02/12.shtml

[15] http://www.ca-c.org/online/2003/journal_eng/cac-02/13.kudeng.shtml

[16] http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/uae/government/uae-kazakhstan-aim-for-strategic-partnership-1.118283

[17] http://www.jamestown.org/programs/edm/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=34651&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=407&no_cache=1

[18] http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/04/22/AR2010042205880.html

[19] http://www.themoscowtimes.com/opinion/article/russia-gets-duped-again/404838.html

[20] http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/50300/Balkan-Wars

[21] http://www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/Kazakhstan/Background.html

[22] http://www.cacianalyst.org/?q=node/5296

[23] http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Kazakhstan+:+Kazakhstan+starts+transporting+oil+by…-a0188402397

[24] http://www.rzd-partner.com/press/2010/03/09/351537.html

[25] http://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/05/business/yourmoney/05giffen.html?_r=1&pagewanted=4&n=Top/Reference/Times%20Topics/Subjects/T/Transportation

[26] http://www.cimera.org/sources/92_104.pdf

[27] Buszynski, Leszek: Russia’s New Role in Central Asia, University of California Press (Asian Survey 45 2005): 545-65

[28] http://www.itar-tass.com/eng/level2.html?NewsID=15064918&PageNum=0

[29] http://en.rian.ru/exsoviet/20100415/158595649.html

[30] http://news.scotsman.com/world/Medvedev-to-rescue-of-Russians.6241014.jp

[31] http://www.inco-eeca.net/_media/Annex_8_-_EU_relations_with_Kazakhstan.pdf

[32] http://www.eucentralasia.eu/fileadmin/user_upload/PDF/other_related_publications/path_to_Europe.pdf

[33] http://www.sam.gov.tr/perceptions/volume13/autumn/RojSultanKhanBhatty.pdf

[34] http://www.silkroadstudies.org/new/docs/CEF/Quarterly/November_2006/Dwivedi.pdf

[35] http://articles.latimes.com/2010/apr/12/world/la-fg-nuclear-summit13-2010apr13

[36] http://www.oilandgaseurasia.com/news/p/0/news/4604

[37] http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=azXV5Xg2MiLU

[38] http://silkroadintelligencer.com/2010/02/23/ablyazov-brings-new-accusations-against-kulibayev/

[39] http://www.chinaeconomicreview.com/dailybriefing/2009_12_14/Hu_vows_to_strengthen_Chinese_Uzbek_relations.html

[40] http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0626/p01s08-woaf.html

[41] http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub172.pdf

[42] http://www.heritage.org/Research/Testimony/US-Interests-in-Central-Asia

[43] Benazir Bhutto, Reconciliation: Islam, Democracy, and the West (HarperCollins 2008). ISBN 978-0-06-156758-2.

[44] http://www.afghanistannewscenter.com/news/2001/october/oct202001.html

[45] http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2003/03/20030322.html

[46] http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6720153.stm

[47] http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6350847.stm

[48] http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/08/10/world/main4336544.shtml

[49] http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7249034.stm

[50] http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/31/opinion/31iht-edkupchan.html?ref=global

[51] http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/0,1518,469828,00.html

[52] http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=758

[53] http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL30294.pdf

[54] http://www.cfr.org/publication/18551/

[55] http://ec.europa.eu/development/icenter/featured_20100421_en.cfm

[56] http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/central_asia/docs/2010_strategy_eu_centralasia_en.pdf

[57] http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/jan2009/gb2009013_045451.htm?campaign_id=rss_daily

[58] http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2001/11/20011113-16.html

[59] http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/4550845.stm

[60] http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/28/world/asia/28uzbek.html?_r=1

[61] Halford Mackinder: Democratic Ideals and Reality. General Books (August 2009), ISBN-10: 0217201490